It often stays for an extended period of time over densely populated cities or urban areas, and can build up to dangerous levels. According to the Canadian Science Smog Assessment published in , smog is responsible for detrimental effects on human and ecosystem health, as well as socioeconomic well-being across the country.
Air pollution in British Columbia is of particular concern, especially in the Fraser Valley, because of a meteorological effect called inversion which decreases air dispersion and leads to smog concentration.
For the past few years, cities in northern India have been covered in a thick layer of winter smog. The situation has turned quite drastic in the National Capital, Delhi. This smog is caused by the collection of Particulate Matter a very fine type of dust and toxic gases in the air due to stagnant movement of air during winters.
Delhi is the most polluted  city in the world and according to one estimate, air pollution causes the death of about 10, people in Delhi every year. Environmentalists have criticised the Delhi government for not doing enough to curb air pollution and to inform people about air quality issues. However, according to several authors, most of these gains have been lost, especially due to stubble burning , rise in market share of diesel cars and a considerable decline in bus ridership.
In , concerns over air pollution were sufficient for Edward I to briefly ban coal fires in London. The " Ballad of Gresham College " the same year describes how the smoke "does our lungs and spirits choke, Our hanging spoil, and rust our iron. Severe episodes of smog continued in the 19th and 20th centuries, mainly in the winter, and were nicknamed "pea-soupers," from the phrase "as thick as pea soup.
Initially a flu epidemic was blamed for the loss of life. In the Clean Air Act started legally enforcing smokeless zones in the capital. There were areas where no soft coal was allowed to be burned in homes or in businesses, only coke , which produces no smoke.
Because of the smokeless zones, reduced levels of sooty particulates eliminated the intense and persistent London smog. It was after this that the great clean-up of London began. One by one, historical buildings which, during the previous two centuries had gradually completely blackened externally, had their stone facades cleaned and restored to their original appearance. Victorian buildings whose appearance changed dramatically after cleaning included the British Museum of Natural History.
A more recent example was the Palace of Westminster , which was cleaned in the s. Other areas of the United Kingdom were affected by smog, especially heavily industrialised areas. The cities of Glasgow and Edinburgh, in Scotland, suffered smoke-laden fogs in Des Voeux, commonly credited with creating the "smog" moniker, presented a paper in to the Manchester Conference of the Smoke Abatement League of Great Britain about the fogs and resulting deaths.
One Birmingham resident described near black-out conditions in the s before the Clean Air Act, with visibility so poor that cyclists had to dismount and walk in order to stay on the road. On 29 April , the UK Supreme Court ruled that the government must take immediate action to cut air pollution,  following a case brought by environmental lawyers at ClientEarth.
Due to its location in a highland "bowl", cold air sinks down onto the urban area of Mexico City , trapping industrial and vehicle pollution underneath, and turning it into the most infamously smog-plagued city of Latin America. Within one generation, the city has changed from being known for some of the cleanest air of the world into one with some of the worst pollution, with pollutants like nitrogen dioxide being double or even triple international standards.
Similar to Mexico City, the air pollution of Santiago valley, located between the Andes and the Chilean Coast Range , turn it into the most infamously smog-plagued city of South America. Other aggravates of the situation reside in its high latitude 31 degrees South and dry weather during most of the year. In December , schools and public offices had to close in Tehran and people were taken to hospital, in a severe smog blamed largely on unfiltered car exhaust.
Because of their locations in low basins surrounded by mountains, Los Angeles and the San Joaquin Valley are notorious for their smog. Los Angeles in particular is strongly predisposed to accumulation of smog, because of peculiarities of its geography and weather patterns.
Los Angeles is situated in a flat basin with ocean on one side and mountain ranges on three sides. A nearby cold ocean current depresses surface air temperatures in the area, resulting in an inversion layer: All taken together, this results in a relatively thin, enclosed layer of air above the city that cannot easily escape out of the basin and tends to accumulate pollution.
Though Los Angeles was one of the best known cities suffering from transportation smog for much of the 20th century, so much so that it was sometimes said that Los Angeles was a synonym for smog ,  strict regulations by government agencies overseeing this problem, including tight restrictions on allowed emissions levels for all new cars sold in California and mandatory regular emission tests of older vehicles, resulted in significant improvements in air quality. For example, air concentrations of volatile organic compounds declined by a factor of 50 between and In the late s, massive immigration to Ulaanbaatar from the countryside began.
A temporary solution to decrease smog was proposed in the form of stoves with improved efficiency, although with no visible results. Coal-fired ger stoves release high levels of ash and other particulate matter PM.
When inhaled, these particles can settle in the lungs and respiratory tract and cause health problems. Smog is a regular problem in Southeast Asia caused by land and forest fires in Indonesia , especially Sumatra and Kalimantan , although the term haze is preferred in describing the problem.
Farmers and plantation owners are usually responsible for the fires, which they use to clear tracts of land for further plantings.
Not included are social, environmental, and psychological problems and long-term health effects. The second-latest bout of haze to occur in Malaysia , Singapore and the Malacca Straits is in October , and was caused by smoke from fires in Indonesia being blown across the Straits of Malacca by south-westerly winds. A similar haze has occurred in June , with the PSI setting a new record in Singapore on June 21 at 12pm with a reading of , which is in the "Hazardous" range.
Since start of winter season heavy smog loaded with pollutants covered major part of Punjab especially the city of Lahore,  causing breathing problems and disrupting normal traffic.
Doctors advised residents to stay indoors and wear facemasks outside. The severity of smog is often measured using automated optical instruments such as Nephelometers , as haze is associated with visibility and traffic control in ports. In hazy conditions, it is likely that the index will report the suspended particulate level. The disclosure of the responsible pollutant is mandated in some jurisdictions. The Malaysian API does not have a capped value; hence its most hazardous readings can go above Above , a state of emergency is declared in the affected area.
Usually, this means that non-essential government services are suspended, and all ports in the affected area are closed. There may also be prohibitions on private sector commercial and industrial activities in the affected area excluding the food sector. So far, state of emergency rulings due to hazardous API levels were applied to the Malaysian towns of Port Klang, Kuala Selangor and the state of Sarawak during the Malaysian haze and the Southeast Asian haze.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Smog disambiguation. Not to be confused with Smoke. It has been suggested that Summer smog be merged into this article. Discuss Proposed since November Environmental issues in Delhi. A Social History of American Technology. Archived from the original on The Surface Transportation Policy Project.
Archived from the original on 8 February United States Environmental Protection Agency. Measuring Vehicle Contribution to Smog". Retrieved 25 October Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. Living in the Environment: Principles, Connections, and Solutions 12th Edition.
Retrieved 6 November Retrieved 22 March Half of USA breathing illegal levels of smog". Cleaner Air, Healthier Kids". Retrieved 16 March Smog — Who does it hurt? Archived from the original on 13 August Training for Health Care Providers. In addition to these effects, evidence from observational studies strongly indicates that higher daily ozone concentrations are associated with increased asthma attacks, increased hospital admissions, increased daily mortality, and other markers of morbidity.
Archived from the original on August 18, Estimation of causal associations in a semiparametric model". American Journal of Epidemiology. Plait began publishing explanatory Internet postings on science in In , Plait started the Bad Astronomy blog. In July , it moved to a new host, Discover Magazine.
While it is primarily an astronomy blog, Plait also posts about skepticism , pseudoscience , antiscience topics, with occasional personal and political posts.
On November 12, , the Bad Astronomy blog moved to Slate magazine. His conference explained how to defend Earth from asteroids. In November it was announced that Plait would be joining the YouTube educational series Crash Course to teach a forthcoming Astronomy unit. The first episode was uploaded on January 15, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Not to be confused with the book Bad Astronomy , also by Plait. Retrieved January 10, Retrieved January 29, James Randi Educational Foundation. Retrieved November 8, Retrieved January 26, Evidence for Shock Interaction with Circumstellar Gas". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. Reports on Progress in Physics. Peter; Traub, Wesley A.
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